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Template.py

#!/usr/bin/env python
# $Id: Template.py,v 1.118 2005/07/20 17:44:28 tavis_rudd Exp $
"""Provides the core Template class for Cheetah
See the docstring in __init__.py and the User's Guide for more information

Meta-Data
================================================================================
Author: Tavis Rudd <tavis@damnsimple.com>
License: This software is released for unlimited distribution under the
         terms of the Python license.
Version: $Revision: 1.118 $
Start Date: 2001/03/30
Last Revision Date: $Date: 2005/07/20 17:44:28 $
""" 
__author__ = "Tavis Rudd <tavis@damnsimple.com>"
__revision__ = "$Revision: 1.118 $"[11:-2]

import os                         # used to get environ vars, etc.
import sys                        # used in the error handling code
import re                         # used to define the internal delims regex
import new                        # used to bind the compiled template code
import types                      # used in the mergeNewTemplateData method
                                  # and in Template.__init__()
import string
try:
    from types import StringTypes
except ImportError:
    StringTypes = (types.StringType,types.UnicodeType)
from types import StringType, ClassType
import time                       # used in the cache refresh code
from time import time as currentTime # used in the cache refresh code
import os.path                    # used in Template.normalizePath()
from os.path import getmtime, exists
from random import randrange
from tempfile import gettempdir, mktemp
import imp
import traceback

# Base classes for Template
from Cheetah.SettingsManager import SettingsManager  
from Cheetah.Servlet import Servlet                 
from Cheetah.Utils.WebInputMixin import WebInputMixin

# More intra-package imports ...
from Cheetah import ErrorCatchers              # for placeholder tags
from Cheetah import Filters                          # the output filters
from Cheetah.DummyTransaction import DummyTransaction
from Cheetah.NameMapper import NotFound, valueFromSearchList, valueForName # this is used in the generated code
from Cheetah.NameMapper import valueFromFrameOrSearchList # this is used in the generated code
from Cheetah.Utils import VerifyType             # Used in Template.__init__
from Cheetah.Utils.Misc import checkKeywords     # Used in Template.__init__
from Cheetah.Utils.Indenter import Indenter      # Used in Template.__init__ and for
                                                 # placeholders
from Cheetah.CacheRegion import CacheRegion

# function name aliase in used dynamically loaded templates
VFS = valueFromSearchList
VFFSL = valueFromFrameOrSearchList
VFN = valueForName

class NoDefault:
    pass

class Error(Exception):
    pass
    
00067 class Template(SettingsManager, Servlet, WebInputMixin):
    
    """The core template engine.  It serves as a base class for Template
    servlets and also knows how to compile a template."""

    # All the keyword arguments allowed in the Template constructor.
    _legalKWs = ['_globalSetVars', '_preBuiltSearchList']

00075     def __init__(self, source=None, searchList=[], file=None,
                 filter='EncodeUnicode', # which filter from Cheetah.Filters
                 filtersLib=Filters,
                 errorCatcher=None,
                 
                 compilerSettings = {}, # control the behaviour of the compiler
                 **KWs        # used internally for #include'd templates
                 ):
        
        """Reads in the template definition, sets up the namespace searchList,
        processes settings, then compiles.

        Compiler configuration settings should be passed in as a dictionary via
        the 'compilerSettings' keyword.

        This method can also be called without arguments in cases where it is
        called as a baseclass from a pre-compiled Template servlet."""
        
        ##################################################           
        ## Verify argument keywords and types

        checkKeywords(KWs, self._legalKWs, 'Template constructor argument')

        S = types.StringType
        U = types.UnicodeType
        L = types.ListType
        T = types.TupleType
        D = types.DictType
        F = types.FileType
        C = types.ClassType
        M = types.ModuleType
        N = types.NoneType
        vt = VerifyType.VerifyType
        vtc = VerifyType.VerifyTypeClass
        try:
            vt(source, 'source', [N,S,U], 'string or None')
            vt(searchList, 'searchList', [L,T], 'list or tuple')
            vt(file, 'file', [N,S,U,F], 'string, file open for reading, or None')
            vtc(filter, 'filter', [S,C], 'string or class', 
                Filters.Filter,
                '(if class, must be subclass of Cheetah.Filters.Filter)')
            vt(filtersLib, 'filtersLib', [S,M], 'string or module',
                '(if module, must contain subclasses of Cheetah.Filters.Filter)')
            vtc(errorCatcher, 'errorCatcher', [N,S,C], 'string, class or None',
               ErrorCatchers.ErrorCatcher,
               '(if class, must be subclass of Cheetah.ErrorCatchers.ErrorCatcher)')
            vt(compilerSettings, 'compilerSettings', [D], 'dictionary')
        except TypeError, reason:
            # Re-raise the exception here so that the traceback will end in
            # this function rather than in some utility function.
            raise TypeError(reason)
        
        if source is not None and file is not None:
            raise TypeError("you must supply either a source string or the" + 
                            " 'file' keyword argument, but not both")
00130             
        
        ##################################################           
        ## Do superclass initialization.

        SettingsManager.__init__(self)
00136         Servlet.__init__(self)
        self._compilerSettings = compilerSettings

        ##################################################           
        ## Setup the searchList of namespaces in which to search for $placeholders
        # + setup a dict of #set directive vars - include it in the searchList

        self._globalSetVars = {}

        if KWs.has_key('_globalSetVars'):
            # this is intended to be used internally by Nested Templates in #include's
            self._globalSetVars = KWs['_globalSetVars']
            
        if KWs.has_key('_preBuiltSearchList'):
            # happens with nested Template obj creation from #include's
            self._searchList = list(KWs['_preBuiltSearchList'])
            self._searchList.append(self)
        else:
00154             # create our own searchList
            self._searchList = [self._globalSetVars]            
            self._searchList.extend(list(searchList))
            self._searchList.append( self )

        ##################################################
        ## Now, compile if we're meant to
        self._cacheRegions = {}
00162         self._generatedModuleCode = None
        self._generatedClassCode = None
        if source is not None or file is not None:
            self.compile(source, file)
        
        ##################################################
        ## setup the ouput filters
        self._filtersLib = filtersLib
        self._filters = {}
        if type(filter) in StringTypes:
            filterName = filter
            klass = getattr(self._filtersLib, filterName)
        else:
            klass = filter
00176             filterName = klass.__name__
            
        self._currentFilter = self._filters[filterName] = klass(self).filter
        self._initialFilter = self._currentFilter

        ##################################################
        ## setup the errorChecker
        self._errorCatchers = {}
        if errorCatcher:
            if type(errorCatcher) in StringTypes:
                errorCatcherClass = getattr(ErrorCatchers, errorCatcher)
            elif type(errorCatcher) == ClassType:
                errorCatcherClass = errorCatcher

            self._errorCatcher = self._errorCatchers[errorCatcher.__class__.__name__] = \
00191                                  errorCatcherClass(self)
        else:
            self._errorCatcher = None
        self._initErrorCatcher = self._errorCatcher
        
        ##################################################
        ## Setup the indenter
        self._indenter = Indenter()
        self._indent = self._indenter.indent
        

            
00203     def compile(self, source=None, file=None,
                moduleName=None,
                mainMethodName='respond'):
        
        """Compile the template. This method is automatically called by __init__
        when __init__ is fed a file or source string."""
        
        from Compiler import Compiler
        
        if file and type(file) in StringTypes and not moduleName and \
           re.match(r'[a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*$', file):
            moduleName = os.path.splitext(os.path.split(file)[1])[0]
        elif not moduleName:
            moduleName='GenTemplate'

        self._fileMtime = None
        self._fileDirName = None
        self._fileBaseName = None
        if file and type(file) in StringTypes:
            file = self.serverSidePath(file)
            self._fileMtime = os.path.getmtime(file)
            self._fileDirName, self._fileBaseName = os.path.split(file)
        self._filePath = file
                    
        compiler = Compiler(source, file,
                            moduleName=moduleName,
                            mainMethodName=mainMethodName,
                            templateObj=self,
                            settings=self._compilerSettings,
                            )
        compiler.compile()
        self._generatedModuleCode = str(compiler)
        self._generatedClassCode = str(compiler._finishedClassIndex[moduleName])

        compiler._templateObj = None
        compiler.__dict__ = {}
        del compiler

00241     def generatedModuleCode(self):
        
        """Return the module code the compiler generated, or None if no
        compilation took place."""
        
        return self._generatedModuleCode
    
00248     def generatedClassCode(self):
        
        """Return the class code the compiler generated, or None if no
        compilation took place."""

        return self._generatedClassCode
    
00255     def searchList(self):
        """Return a reference to the searchlist"""
        return self._searchList

00259     def errorCatcher(self):
        """Return a reference to the current errorCatcher"""
        return self._errorCatcher

00263     def refreshCache(self, cacheRegionKey=None, cacheKey=None):
        
        """Refresh a cache item."""
        
        if not cacheRegionKey:
            # clear all template's cache regions
            self._cacheRegions.clear()
        else:
            region = self._cacheRegions.get(cacheRegionKey, CacheRegion())
            if not cacheKey:
                # clear the desired region and all its cache
                region.clear()
            else:
                # clear one specific cache of a specific region
                cache = region.getCache(cacheKey)
                if cache:
                    cache.clear()

00281     def shutdown(self):
        """Break reference cycles before discarding a servlet."""
        Servlet.shutdown(self)
        self._searchList = None
        self.__dict__ = {}
            
    ## utility functions ##   

00289     def getVar(self, varName, default=NoDefault, autoCall=True):
        
        """Get a variable from the searchList.  If the variable can't be found
        in the searchList, it returns the default value if one was given, or
        raises NameMapper.NotFound."""
        
        try:
            return VFS(self.searchList(), varName.replace('$',''), autoCall)
        except NotFound:
            if default != NoDefault:
                return default
            else:
                raise
    
00303     def varExists(self, varName, autoCall=True):
        """Test if a variable name exists in the searchList."""
        try:
            VFS(self.searchList(), varName.replace('$',''), autoCall)
            return True
        except NotFound:
            return False


    hasVar = varExists
    

00315     def getFileContents(self, path):
        """A hook for getting the contents of a file.  The default
        implementation just uses the Python open() function to load local files.
        This method could be reimplemented to allow reading of remote files via
        various protocols, as PHP allows with its 'URL fopen wrapper'"""
        
        fp = open(path,'r')
        output = fp.read()
        fp.close()
        return output

    
00327     def runAsMainProgram(self):
        
        """Allows enable the Template to function as a standalone command-line
        program for static page generation.

        Type 'python yourtemplate.py --help to see what it's capabable of.
        """

        from TemplateCmdLineIface import CmdLineIface
        CmdLineIface(templateObj=self).run()
        

    ##################################################
    ## internal methods -- not to be called by end-users
    ## @@TR 2005-01-01:  note that I plan to get rid of all of this in a future
    ## release     
    
    
00345     def _bindCompiledMethod(self, methodCompiler):
        
        """Called by the Compiler class, to add new methods at runtime as the
        compilation process proceeds."""
        
        genCode = str(methodCompiler).strip() + '\n'
        methodName  = methodCompiler.methodName()
        try:
            exec genCode                    # in this namespace!!
        except:
            err = sys.stderr
            print >> err, 'Cheetah was trying to execute the ' + \
                  'following code but Python found a syntax error in it:'
            print >> err
            print >> err,  genCode
            raise
            

        genMeth = self._bindFunctionAsMethod(locals()[methodName])

        setattr(self,methodName, genMeth)
        if methodName == 'respond':
            self.__str__ = genMeth
            self.__repr__ = genMeth

          
00371     def _bindFunctionAsMethod(self, function):
        """Used to dynamically bind a plain function as a method of the
        Template instance."""
        return new.instancemethod(function, self, self.__class__)


00377     def _includeCheetahSource(self, srcArg, trans=None, includeFrom='file', raw=False):
        
        """This is the method that #include directives translate into."""

        if not hasattr(self, '_cheetahIncludes'):
            self._cheetahIncludes = {}

        _includeID = srcArg
            
        if not self._cheetahIncludes.has_key(_includeID):
            if includeFrom == 'file':
                path = self.serverSidePath(srcArg)
                if not raw:
                    nestedTemplate = Template(source=None,
                                              file=path,
                                              _preBuiltSearchList=self.searchList(),
                                              _globalSetVars = self._globalSetVars,
                                              )
                    if not hasattr(nestedTemplate, 'respond'):
                        nestedTemplate.compileTemplate()
                    self._cheetahIncludes[_includeID] = nestedTemplate
                else:
                    self._cheetahIncludes[_includeID] = self.getFileContents(path)
            else:                       # from == 'str'
                if not raw:
                    nestedTemplate = Template(
                        source=srcArg,
                        _preBuiltSearchList=self.searchList(),
                        _globalSetVars = self._globalSetVars,
                        )
                    if not hasattr(nestedTemplate, 'respond'):
                        nestedTemplate.compileTemplate()
                    self._cheetahIncludes[_includeID] = nestedTemplate
                else:
                    self._cheetahIncludes[_includeID] = srcArg
        ##

        if not raw:
            self._cheetahIncludes[_includeID].respond(trans)
        else:
            trans.response().write(self._cheetahIncludes[_includeID])


00420     def _genTmpFilename(self):
        
        """Generate a temporary file name.  This is used internally by the
        Compiler to do correct importing from Cheetah templates when the
        template is compiled via the Template class' interface rather than via
        'cheetah compile'."""
       
        return (
            ''.join(map(lambda x: '%02d' % x, time.localtime(time.time())[:6])) + 
            str(randrange(10000, 99999)) +
            '.py')

00432     def _importAsDummyModule(self, contents):

        """Used by the Compiler to do correct importing from Cheetah templates
        when the template is compiled via the Template class' interface rather
        than via 'cheetah compile'.
        """
        tmpFilename = self._genTmpFilename()
        name = tmpFilename.replace('.py','')
        co = compile(contents+'\n', tmpFilename, 'exec')
        mod = new.module(name)
        #mod.__file__ = co.co_filename
        #mod.__co__ = co
        exec co in mod.__dict__
        return mod

T = Template   # Short and sweet for debugging at the >>> prompt.

# vim: shiftwidth=4 tabstop=4 expandtab

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